In my Beyond Frameworks talk, I explained how a component-based architecture can help answer some of the important (i.e. expensive!) questions you might face when creating long-lived apps that rely on a PHP framework. In this series of blog posts, I’m going to look at how to go about creating and working with components.
In the last article, I edited the build.properties file to set the component’s name and version number. I need to finish setting up the component’s metadata by editing package.xml.
Every PEAR-compatible component needs to ship with a manifest file called package.xml. You can see the the unedited version on GitHub that we’re about to change.
package.xml contains the following useful information:
- The component’s name, channel, version number, and description.
- A list of the component’s authors.
- The component’s license.
- A list of the component’s contents.
- A list of the component’s dependencies, including PHP version, PHP extensions, and other components.
(package.xml can hold other information too, but I’ve yet to see them being put to practical use, so we’ll leave them for today and come back to them if needed later on).
In our component skeleton, we need to add some of this data to package.xml, and the rest will be added automatically by the tools when we build a PEAR-compatible package, to save us the trouble of doing it by hand.
Setting Up The Component’s Name And Channel
All PEAR-compatible packages have a fully-qualified name of the form <channel>/<name>. In this skeleton, our tools will automatically inject project.name from the build.properties file into package.xml’s <name> tag when we build the PEAR-compatible package. We just need to edit the <channel> tag in package.xml to point to our server.
As I’m going to publish these packages via our public PEAR channel, I’ve set <channel> to be “pear.gradwell.com”. Don’t worry if you don’t have your own PEAR channel yet; they’re very easy to create, and I’ll look at exactly how to set one up and publish it later in this series.
Setting Up The Component’s Version Number, And Description
All PEAR-compatible packages have a version number. We’ve already set this in build.properties; our tools will automatically inject this into package.xml. (We could have put this directly into package.xml, but the version number is duplicated in a couple of places, and it seems much easier to let the tools deal with that so that we don’t forget to update all the version numbers when we make a new release).
For the description, edit the <:summary> and <description> tags. The descriptions get used in the human-friendly HTML page that each PEAR channel has, so they’re worth the trouble of filling in.
Setting Up The Component’s Author
There’s a few tags inside package.xml that tell anyone who is interested who the current author of the component is. This information gets used in the human-friendly HTML page that each PEAR channel has. I’ve set these tags as follows:
<name>Stuart Herbert</name> <user>stuartherbert</user> <email>firstname.lastname@example.org</email> <active>yes</active>
Setting Up The Component’s License
The <license> tag contains text to say under what license the component has been released. By default, the skeleton sets this to be “All rights reserved.” Whilst I’d love you to opensource all of your components, I wouldn’t like to presume ;)
For our component, I’ve set this tag to say “New BSD license.”.
Setting The List Of The Component’s Contents
The <contents> tag is where the PEAR installer expects to find a file-by-file list of all of the files that need to be installed, along with instructions on where to install them. Each file is flagged as being a specific ‘role’ – script, php code, data file, unit test, website page – and the PEAR installer then decides for you where it will put them. Don’t try fighting it; it has some built-in assumptions that aren’t worth trying to work around.
We don’t need to edit this tag at all. When we build our PEAR-compatible package later on, the tools will manage this section for us. It saves a lot of time and effort, and debugging!
Setting Up The Component’s Dependencies
Finally, we get to the bit that makes it all worthwhile: the list of what this component needs in order to work. By getting these right, we can reliably re-create the entire environment that our app needs with just a single command.
A practical demonstration is needed, I think, because this is probably something you’ve never had the opportunity to do before now.
stuart:~/Devel/sental/repustateApi: phing build-vendor
When I run that command, our tools will download all of the dependencies listed in package.xml, and install them into a folder called ‘vendor’. This gives us a reproducible sandbox, where we can find the correct versions of all the code needed to unit test our component. We don’t have to ensure the right version is installed on the computer; we get our own copy of everything needed. If you develop on shared servers, or even if you end up maintaining a lot of components, this is a real time saver.
If you run that command locally, and look inside the ‘vendor’ folder it creates, you should see that our tools have downloaded and installed the Autoloader package that’s listed in package.xml’s list of dependencies. As we add more PEAR-compatible packages to the package.xml’s dependency list, we can rebuild the vendor folder and install all of the dependencies side by side. I’ve picked the repustateApi component because it will allow me to demonstrate that as we go along.
Please ignore the errors that you will see scroll up the screen when you run ‘phing build-vendor’ at this stage. Unfortunately, the PEAR installer doesn’t seem to have a command to install just the dependencies (i.e. pear install –onlydeps) listed. It’s also trying to install our component’s PEAR-compatible package, which doesn’t exist yet.
The Final package.xml File
You can see the final package.xml file, containing all of the edits listed in this blog post, on Github.
As we work on the component and then release it, we will need to come back and edit package.xml a little more. But we’ve done what we need to, for now, and can get started on creating some code.
My apologies if it seems like a lot of work just to create an empty component and then sort out the component’s metadata. In all honesty, after you’ve done it a few times, you can create a new component in a matter of minutes, and this is work you only have to do the once.
In the next blog post, we’re going to start creating the initial tests for this component.