In my Beyond Frameworks talk, I explained how a component-based architecture can help answer some of the important (i.e. expensive!) questions you might face when creating long-lived apps that rely on a PHP framework. In this series of blog posts, I’m going to look at how to go about creating and working with components.
I’m now going under the bonnet of our components, and looking at the different file roles that the PEAR installer expects to find when we distribute our component as a PEAR-compatible package. Although the vast majority of your components will simply be libraries of code, sometimes you might need to ship data files for them to operate on. Thanks to the PEAR installer’s data role, this is possible.
What Is A Data File?
A data file (the ‘data’ file role supported by the PEAR installer) is an arbitrary file that your code either reads from, or (in the case of images et al) serves up to other programs.
There are some important practices and limitations that you need to follow to avoid any disappointments or nasty surprises:
- Data files should not be PHP code that you plan on executing.
Your users expect your code to be in the standard place (which is /usr/share/php for popular Linux systems, or vendor/php/ in the per-app sandbox). Follow the rule of no surprises, and make sure you put your code where your users expect to look for it.
For example, PEAR’s HTTP2_Request component ships PHP code in its data folder, code to rebuild the Public Suffix List (which is, itself, a data file). The chances are that most of HTTP2_Request’s users are unaware that the data folder exists, and that there is code in the data folder which they might need to use. Another example is ezComponent’s ConsoleTools, which ships a UML diagram for ezComponents in its data folder. This probably belongs in the docs folder, if it is meant to be read by developers using ConsoleTools. My local /usr/share/php/ contains many more relevant examples; yours’ probably does too.
- Data files cannot be written to; your code should treat them as read-only.
When your data files are installed for system-wide use, the files are owned by the root user. Unless there is an almighty security cock-up, your code will never ever actually get to run with the root user’s security privileges. If your code tries to write to these data files, it will generate a runtime error.
But this won’t show up when you unit-test your code. So remember, and don’t write the code in the first place
Where Do Data Files Go Inside The Component’s Structure?
If we take a look at the ComponentManagerPhpLibrary component, you’ll find the data files are inside in the src/data/ folder. These are the skeleton files used for a PHP library component.
src/data/ is meant to be a folder that holds the data files that you want installed into the computer system.
Where Do Data Files Get Installed?
When you use the PEAR installer to install your component:
$ pear install phix/ComponentManagerPhpLibrary
all of the files in your component’s src/data/ folder gets installed into /usr/share/php/data/<package-name> on your computer:
The PEAR installer’s behaviour here is different to both command-line scripts and PHP code; the installer creates a sub-folder with the name of your package, and then installs your data files into this sub-folder, and not into the main data_dir folder. This isn’t a problem in practice, as long as you are aware of the different behaviour here.
The data file script src/data/php-library/README.md therefore ends up installed onto your computer as /usr/share/php/data/ComponentManagerPhpLibrary/php-library/README.md.
There’s always the possibility that some Linux distros (and Mac OS X) will install data files into a different folder. You can see where the PEAR installer will put these files on your computer by running:
$ sudo pear config-show | grep data_dir PEAR data directory data_dir /usr/share/php/data
If you want to read these data files from your PHP code, you cannot safely hard-code the final installation location into your scripts; it will vary from OS to OS, and will also be different again if your component is installed into a vendor directory. You’ll need to locate these files using a different technique.
How Do I Locate The Data Files From My PHP Code?
Take a look at the top of the LibraryComponentFolder class from the ComponentManagerPhpLibrary component:
class LibraryComponentFolder extends ComponentFolder
@@DATA_DIR@@ is a token that, at runtime, the PEAR installer expands to be the fully-qualified path to the top of the computer’s data_dir. Underneath that, you need to remember to add your component’s name to the path, otherwise you’ll be scratching your head and wondering why you can’t find the data files!
(The full instructions that tell the PEAR installer to expand this token are added to your component’s package.xml file when we build the PEAR-compatible package. I’ll look at the final package.xml file in detail towards the end of this series of blog posts).
How Do I Unit Test PHP Code That Relies On Data FIles?
There is one important downside to this technique; any unit tests that rely on loading data from your data directory are going to fail, because @@DATA_DIR@@ is only expanded when the PEAR installer installs your component. At the time of writing, I don’t have an easy solution for this, but leave it with me, and I’ll find a solution for this before the end of this series of blog posts.